Management styles are a group of principles that any firm can follow as a part of their management policy to garner maximum output from its employees and grow collectively as a team. As the business world has grown into an extremely challenging field, they have become significant in imparting stability and good governance to private firms.
Basically, it is not necessary that every management style suits every firm. The fact is that a particular style followed in one company may fail in the other company. Every style is unique, and some people may respond positively to one, whereas some may not perform effectively for the same.
Types of Management Styles
Some of the popular styles that have been studied in depth by scholars and business students are the theories given by Taylor, Fayol, Weber, Mayo, Maslow, Schein, and Drucker. All these theories have been based on the experiences of these scholars who have researched and come up with their theories.
Authoritarian Management Style
In this style, a manager at the top governs and decides all the management policies. The manager expects the employees to perform tasks as they have been outlined by the boss and senior managers. In this style of management, the employees know what to do, how to do, and when to do.
Democratic Management Style
The managers who follow the democratic style of management focus on giving flexibility to the employees so that the team can together evolve as one unit.
By involving the team members in taking decisions and delegating tasks, the managers give the employee a sense of ownership so that every employee feels as one family. In this style, team building skills, social harmony, and cooperation are aimed to achieve a target.
Paternalistic Management Style
Pater in Latin stands for 'father', and the paternalistic style of managers try to act as a father figure to the employees, thereby ensuring that all employees 'feel happy and bonded' while working in the company.
Managers at the top will listen to the employee, and at times, ask for feedback and opinions while taking any decision. The social need of recognition of the employee is taken care of, in this style of management. This style matches with the theory of social needs by Maslow.
Theories Hailed as Management Styles
Famous management experts and scholars like Taylor, Hawthorne, and Drucker put forward certain theories regarding management styles and leadership on the basis of their experience and study. These theories become so popular that they are now considered as unique styles of management in their own right. Let us take a glance at some of these theories.
Taylor's Theory of Scientific Management
It was proposed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in 1900, popularly known as 'Taylorism', Taylor's theory of scientific management focused on developing a standard method to perform any job. According to Taylor, the main task of decision-making must be decided by the management board and workers should focus on their tasks.
The Hawthrone Effect Studied by Elton Mayo
This management style evolved between the 1930s to 1940s, from the study of Elton Mayo, a management professor who studied the effect of working conditions on the employees in the Western Electric Hawthorne Works in Cicero, Illinois (a suburb of Chicago).
According to this management style, the necessary condition for receiving quality performance from the employees is to provide them with all the adequate needs.
Elton believed that human beings are not single dimensional entities, and so, if a firm needs quality performance, employees must be satisfied by firm's care and support. Proper working environment and other facilities must be provided to the employees for maximum output.
Peter Drucker's Management Style of Focusing on Objectives
Peter Drucker, the guru of modern management introduced this management style in 1954. The principles stated by Drucker in this theory are extremely popular in today's markets. According to him, motivation of the employees, excellent communication, coordination, and clarity of the targets are the major factors governing the success of a firm.
The list of management styles is exhaustive and has evolved over many years. Depending on the need, board of directors, top executives and managers used these styles to take their firm to new heights of success and stability.